1. Patients with angina equivalents who:
- Are considered inoperable or at high risk of operative / interventional complications.
- Suffer from micro vascular angina (cardiac syndrome X)
- Have coronary anatomy unsuitable for catheter-
based or surgical revascularization.
- Have co-
morbid conditions / illnesses that increase the risk of revascularization procedures (e.g. Diabetes, heart failure, pulmonary disease, renal dysfunction)
- Have Left Ventricular Dysfunction (LVD) with an Ejection Fraction <35%
- Are unwilling to undergo additional invasive revascularization procedures.
- No longer respond to medical therapy.
- Restrict their activities to avoid angina.
- Cannot afford angioplasty and bypass surgery
2. Patients who have suffered / suffer from myocardial infarction (heart attacks)
3. Heart Failure patients who:
- Have ejection fraction of <40%
- Have ischaemic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy
- Have co-
morbid conditions that increase the risk of complications of revascularization procedures.
- Diabetic patients who have a greater risk for post-
procedural complications. (due to small vessel disease)
- Elderly patients at high risk for morbidity and mortality associated with invasive coronary interventions
ECP can also be performed on patients who want to undergo treatment as a prophylactic (preventative) procedure to ensure a healthy lifestyle.
- Severe arrhythmias
- Bleeding diathesis
- Active thrombophlebitis
- Severe lower extremity vascular occlusive disease
- Presence of a documented aortic aneurysm requiring surgical repair
- Severe pulmonary hypertension/oedema (pulmonary artery > 50 mm Hg)
- Uncontrolled systemic hypertension (> 180/110 mm Hg)
- Severe aortic insufficiency
- Warfarin therapy with INR>3.0